The main reason for conducting a DNA test is to check whether the embryo is normal or has any morphological issues. There is another reason for which the test is conducted is to know the biological father of a child. But during pregnancy, you can also run a prenatal paternity test.
Postpartum paternity tests are the most common ones but in case of any complication, it is required to carry out a prenatal paternity test. This is associated with some risks related to the mother and the child’s health as well.
One can carry out DNA testing within the time of 9 weeks. Technological advancement has made it easier for the mother and the baby to carry out the process with fewer risks.
Is it possible to carry it out during operation?
Pregnancy tests are carried out as postpartum paternity tests. Prenatal paternity testing may come with some risks. Since it is important to know the biological father of the baby so it is essential to conduct a legal paternity test.
The need for conducting a prenatal paternity test may be understood in the form of legal Medical and psychological reasons. The American Pregnancy Association says that:
- A paternity test is important for establishing legal in social benefits like inheritance and social security
- It also suggests the medical history of the baby
- It can be the reason for strengthening the father-child bonding
The complete process involves filling a form acknowledging paternity. You should complete it at the hospital before the baby’s birth. Once the process is on the track the couple can request a paternity test for amendments. The form contains the Bureau of Vital Statistics as Legally Binding Documents.
Who can conduct a prenatal DNA test?
The parents, whether the mother or the father, can conduct a paternity test. Since the paternity test is done basically for knowing details of the biological father but it does need the consent of both the parents.
So to conduct a paternity test, whether postpartum or prenatal, the consent of both the mother as well as the father is required. Women who are unsure of the paternity of their child can ask for a prenatal paternity test.
It is difficult to pinpoint the conception date accurately and precisely for knowing the paternity because each woman has different ovulation dates and the sperm may be inside the female reproductive organ for more than 3 days. So, it can be difficult to determine fatherhood precisely.
What are the types of conducting a prenatal paternity test?
The most common methods of paternity testing after the child’s birth include:
- Umbilical cord collection after the delivery
- Cheek swab test
- Blood sample test
For the prenatal test, some of the preferred methods are:
- Non-invasive prenatal paternity (NIPP). Is considered the most accurate way for conducting a DNA test during pregnancy. Blood samples from the alleged father and mother are taken, followed by conducting fetal cell analysis.
Accuracy is 99% which compares the fetal cells present in the Mother’s bloodstream with that of the father. It is safe to carry out even after the 8th week of pregnancy.
- Amniocentesis. The procedure starts between the 14th and 20th week of pregnancy. It tests neural tube defects chromosome abnormalities and genetic disorders.
The comparison between the DNA sample of the father and the DNA sample of the amniotic fluid of the uterus gives the paternity testing results. A doctor’s consent is required to conduct amniocentesis for a paternity test. This is also known for 99% accuracy.
- Chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Doctors conduct the paternity test after collecting the DNA samples of the fetus from the chorionic villi with the help of ultrasound.
The comparison between the DNA sample of the alleged father and the sample of the uterine gives the result of the paternity test. It is performed within 10 to 13 weeks of pregnancy. This also has a 99% accuracy.
Is It risky to conduct the test?
There are possible risks accompanied by prenatal paternity tests. The above-mentioned types of prenatal paternity have fatal side effects. Since each of these needs to get the samples directly from the fetus that is inside the womb it can be risky to the life of the fetus.
There is an availability of different types of paternity tests with various types of costing based on the sides and the authority.
It is always recommended to carry out a paternity test from labs that are eradicated by the American Association of Blood Banks. The American Pregnancy Association has given its statement in favor of this. The AABB Labs meet the best quality and privacy for test performance.
What are the possible risks involved?
The possible risks that involve in prenatal paternity test are:
- Vaginal bleeding due to the insertion of a thin needle to get the amniotic fluid directly from the uterus
- The thing needle insertion has a small risk of miscarriage during amniocentesis
- It can cause cramping
- Also, It can be the reason for the leakage of amniotic fluid from the vagina due to the breaking of the amniotic wall
- It can cause irritations at the injection site
The tests like CVS, amniocentesis, and NIPP are mostly done for checking the chromosome abnormality neural tube defects, and genetic disorders of the fetus.
Since thin needles or tubes are inserted inside the vagina through the cervix it can cause irritations and in severe cases may result in miscarriage. The process of paternity tests during the pregnancy can be life-threatening that’s why the prenatal DNA test is conducted on a doctor’s consultation.
The DNA test or the prenatal paternity test is a major way to know the fatherhood of a child. There are legal and illegal methods of conducting it. Mostly Postpartum pregnancy tests are carried out to avoid any type of life-threatening conditions.
If there is an extreme need of conducting a paternity test during the pregnancy then there are some accurate methods that give a 99% accuracy as mentioned above.
Although this method may not be completely reliable even if they give 99% accurate results. The reason is they can be extremely life-threatening both to the mother as well as the child.
To conduct a prenatal paternity test requires a lot of legal formalities. The formalities range from researching a well-established laboratory, it is mentioned by the American paternity Association to proper physician consultation.
The tests are conducted to get proper knowledge about chromosomal defects or abnormalities. Even if these methods are reliable and may have little wrist due to the advancements in technology the authorities always suggest getting the physician consultation before taking any step.